Niccolo Machiavelli’s two most important works are Discourses on Livy (1531) and The Prince (1532), both of which were published after his death. He wrote several other works, including Florentine Histories (1532) and The Life of Castruccio Castracani of Lucca (1520).
From the age of 29, when he was placed sopra charge of the republic of Florence’s foreign affairs mediante subject territories, Machiavelli held a series of governmental posts. Among his tasks were onesto establish a militia, undertake diplomatic and military missions, oversee fortifications, and write an official history of the republic.
Niccolo Machiavelli, (born May 3, 1469, Florence [Italy]-died June 21, 1527, Florence), Italian Renaissance political philosopher and statesman, secretary of the Florentine republic, whose most famous rete informatica, The Prince (Il Re), brought him verso reputation as an atheist and an immoral cynic.
Early life and political career
From the 13th century onward, Machiavelli’s family was wealthy and prominent, holding on occasion Florence’s most important offices. His father, Bernardo, a dily’s poorest members. Barred from public office per Florence as an insolvent debtor, Bernardo lived frugally, administering his small landed property near the city and supplementing his meagre income from it with earnings from the restricted and almost clandestine exercise of his profession.
Bernardo kept a library con which Niccolo must have read, but little is known of Niccolo’s education and early life in Florence, at that time verso thriving centre of philosophy and verso brilliant showcase of the arts. He attended lectures by Marcello Virgilio Adriani, who chaired the Studio Fiorentino. He learned Latin well and probably knew some Greek, and he seems sicuro have acquired the typical humanist education that was expected of officials of the Florentine Chancery.
Durante verso letter onesto a friend durante 1498, Machiavelli writes of listening onesto the sermons of Girolamo Savonarola (1452–98), verso Dominican friar who moved to Florence per 1482 and durante the 1490s attracted verso rinfresco of popular supporters with his thinly veiled accusations against the government, the clergy, and the pope. Although Savonarola, who effectively ruled Florence for several years after 1494, was featured per The Prince (1513) as an example of an “unarmed prophet” who must fail, Machiavelli was impressed with his learning and rhetorical skill. On May 24, 1498, Savonarola was hanged as per heretic and his body burned in the public square. Several days later, emerging from obscurity at the age of 29, Machiavelli became head of the second chancery (cancelleria), a post that placed him con charge of the republic’s foreign affairs durante subject territories. How so young per man could be entrusted with so high an office remains per mystery, particularly because Machiavelli apparently never served an apprenticeship mediante the chancery. He held the post until 1512, having gained the confidence of Piero Soderini (1452–1522), the gonfalonier (chief magistrate) for life mediante Florence from 1502.
During his tenure at the second chancery, Machiavelli persuaded Soderini preciso reduce the city’s reliance on mercenary forces by establishing a militia (1505), which Machiavelli subsequently organized. He also undertook diplomatic and military missions puro the court of France; sicuro Cesare Borgia (–1507), the cri of Pope Alexander VI (reigned 1492–1503); esatto Pope Julius II (reigned 1503–13), Alexander’s successor; puro the courtaud of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I (reigned 1493–1519); and sicuro Pisa (1509 and 1511).
Sopra 1503, one year after his missions puro Cesare Borgia, Machiavelli wrote a short work, Del come di curare i sudditi della Entaille di Chiana ribellati ( On the Way preciso Deal with the Rebel Subjects of the Valdichiana). Anticipating his later Discourses on Livy, verso commentary on the ancient Roman historian, in this rete informatica he contrasts the errors of Florence apex iscriversi with the wisdom of the Romans and declares that in dealing with rebellious peoples one must either benefit them or eliminate them. Machiavelli also was verso witness sicuro the bloody vengeance taken by Cesare on his mutinous captains at the town of Sinigaglia (ous account. Con much of his early writings, Machiavelli argues that “one should not offend verso prince and later put faith sopra him.”